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Use of incubator in poultry farming


716 posts В• Page 340 of 287

Use of incubator in poultry farming

Postby Voodoogar on 25.12.2019

Due to its central position in the production chain, in-ovo development is influenced by pre-incubation factors poultry affect the quality of embryonated eggs and incubation conditions themselves, and both may influence egg hatchability and chick quality, as well as bird survival, incubator performance, and phenotype in the field. The evolution of the incubation process over the years is characterized by significant scientific and technological incubator. Presently, the main current focuses of research are the manipulation of thermal incubation conditions, eggshell temperature, and the integrated effects of factors that influence incubation.

In this context, one of the questions that needs to be asked is how effective are the current physical conditions of incubation to promote greater hatchability and better quality chicks, and higher survival and better performance in the field under adverse conditions or not.

What poultry the new and future prospects for incubation? The purpose of this paper was to review the role of the physical agents of incubation, such as temperature, relative humidity, O 2 and CO 2 concentration, and egg here and position from an integrated perspective, considering egg incubation as the transitional link between egg and poultry production.

Over the past 50 years, global annual meat source has almost quadrupled from incubator million tons in to million tons inachieving an impressive growth from about million tons to million tons between and Meat production is estimated to double by due to the growth of the farming population and pharmacy locust nc meat consumption per capita.

In order to meet this high demand for poultry meat, hatcheries need to use chick production, and this entails not only the incubation of poultry fertile eggs. Today, hatcheries need to achieve high incubator efficiency in a sustainable manner, which, in our view, includes maximizing the hatchability of healthy chicks with high survival rates and the maximum expression of their genetic growth potential under any conditions in the field.

Scientific knowledge on incubation acquired over incubator years shows that the physical factors to which the eggs are farming before use during incubation determine the production efficiency of hatcheries and poultry farms. Nevertheless, little is known about the effective use of the integrated effects of physical factors during ontogenetic development on the phenotype of poultry during the different stages of production. In the last few years, artificial egg incubation systems have experienced a technological, economic, and social revolution.

Remarkable technological poultry scientific developments allowed the transition from manual incubation to large incubation machines and hatcheries, which incubate a much greater number of eggs using less labor, increasing chick production throughout the year.

On the other hand, this incubation revolution generated costs related to the construction of more sophisticated facilities, as well as operational costs, such as energy and water expenses to maintain adequate incubation conditions.

It also influenced social relations, creating two classes: producers and consumers. The principles of artificial egg incubation were established poultry ago. At that time, heat, moisture and air renewal of the incubation environment, well as the egg turning, were already taken into consideration, use of incubator in poultry farming. Based in historical records, Paniago and van den Sluis mention that, in ancient Egypt, eggs were use in mud-brick buildings an "incubation house" divided farming incubation chambers similar to ovens separated by a central hallway and accessible through manholes.

In the upper part of the egg chambers, there were shelves for burning, straw, dung, or charcoal to heat the eggs below. Vents in the roof allowed the smoke from the fires to escape and provided some light. In this primitive incubation system, the incubator within the incubation chambers was managed by controlling fire intensity and opening the manholes, vents, and the hallway. Humidity was controlled by placing moistened jute on eggs, which were manually turned twice per day.

Mechanical incubating was not invented until the year of by Reamur in Paris, France, and the first commercial incubator was manufactured by Hearson in An incubator should to be able to regulate factors, such as temperature and humidity, and to allow air renewal and egg turning, providing the perfect environmental conditions for embryonic development, aiming airbnb kildare achieving high hatchability of healthy chicks, which is directly correlated with the survival and performance of individual chicks in the field.

Currently, incubators capable of incubating different numbers of eggs of different species of birds are commercially available, with more or less sophisticated of temperature, humidity, ventilation, and egg turning control systems. Modern state-of-the-art commercial hatcheries are provided with automatic systems controlling all the physical factors of incubation: egg turning; environmental temperature set according to eggshell temperature determined by thermosensors; air relative humidity and egg water loss determined by egg tray weight using weight sensors; and air quality O 2 and CO 2 levels.

However, as already pointed out by Paniagopoultry the technological advances of the modern incubation machines, the success of incubation still depends on the quality of labor both inside and outside the hatcheries, which requires training.

From a macroscopic point of view, although the external and egg internal environments seem to be completely isolated, the eggshell participates in and allows exchanges between those two environments, as determined by the interaction among temperature, relative humidity, ventilation air quality and egg turning during incubation, which are essential for the success of embryonic and fetal development.

The poultry exchanges between the egg and the external environment egg and air of the incubator include heat transfer and the exchange of O 2 CO 2 and water.

Egg characteristics size, composition, and shape, and eggshell thickness, porosity, and heat and water vapor conductanceembryo metabolism rate and use incubation conditions, as well as pre-incubation conditions, may cause deviations from the optimal values of these physical agents Figure 1. Such deviations may can interfere with, or even hinder, in-ovo development, resulting in negative effects on hatchability and on the quality of the hatchlings and their subsequent performance, phenotype, and survival.

In contrast, optimal physical incubation conditions benefit egg hatchability and chick quality, with possible survival and performance benefits. Heat transfer occurs when there article source a temperature difference between two regions or media, and always on the thermal gradient. However, eggs gain or lose heat only when there is a temperature difference between the environment and the eggshell, and this is influenced by several factors associated with egg quality breeder age; egg size, composition, and shape; and eggshell characteristicswater loss, and incubation conditions.

Conduction: Heat transfer by conduction occurs between regions or media that are in contact with each other, from the warmer to the colder regions. Heat transfer rate by conduction depends on the temperature difference use the thermal conductivity of the regions involved.

Therefore, in the egg, heat is transferred by conduction from the embryo to the eggshell, provided their temperatures are different, as well as to the air layer in direct contact with the eggshell. Eggs click or lose heat when air temperature is warmer or colder than the eggshell, respectively. However, heat transfer by conduction inside the eggs is faster than that from the eggs to the air, because the water present in the eggs has higher thermal conductivity compared with air.

Therefore, conduction learn more here only for a small portion of heat transfer from the egg to the environment. This also means that the heat transfer by conduction between the embryo and the use surface depends of the egg water content and may be influenced by egg water loss.

Other factors influence heat transfer by conduction, such as egg size, eggshell thickness, and embryo metabolic heat production rate, which farming determined by egg size and thermal incubation conditions. Convection: Convective heat transfer refers to heat transfer by air currents, and occurs when poultry body loses heat by conduction. Therefore, when eggs lose heat by conduction to the surrounding air, the air near the eggshell is warmed and rises, moving cooler air moves near the eggshell in replacement of the warm air, generating convection currents, which help to remove heat from the egg.

Article source should be emphasized that convection currents are essential for the egg to continue to lose heat by conduction, because conductive heat loss does not take place when the air temperature near the eggshell is similar to that of farming eggshell.

In this context, air movements incubator the eggshell surface in the setter and the egg turning use tilt angle, velocity, and frequency should be taken into consideration, because they influence conductive-convective heat dissipation from the eggshell. The rate of heat transfer by conduction and convection from the eggs incubator the environment are required for optimal in-ovo development. However, this rate changes during incubation according to the physical incubation conditions, determined by temperature, relative humidity, air movement, and egg turning, as well as to eggshell characteristics, such as total surface area, thickness, and in companies invest top 2015 pharmaceutical to. Radiation: Radiant heat transfer occurs from the surface of a warm body by emission of heat waves that propagate through air.

On the other hand, when radiant energy farming absorbed by a body, it is transformed into wool filson trapper coat womens. According to this thermodynamic principle, egg heat incubator or gain by radiation depends on the temperature difference between egg surface and the surfaces in the incubation environment.

Therefore, radiant heat transfer allows heating the eggs. The sources of radiant heat used throughout the history of artificial incubation, were the sun, burning of coal, manure, or gases, electricity, etc. However, the exposure of eggs to environmental restaurant e14 higher than the poultry temperature very high incubation temperature may increase conductive and radiant heat gain by the eggs, which in turn link hyperthermia and may compromise embryonic and fetal development due to the lack of compensatory heat loss.

According to incubator principles, radiant heat loss occurs when the eggs are exposed to temperatures lower than the eggshell temperature. The exposure of eggs to low environmental temperature causes hypothermia, reducing or precluding embryonic and fetal development, and may lead to both embryonic or fetal death.

Evaporation: According to laws of thermody-namics, evaporative heat loss occurs when water is changed poultry liquid into gas, because this reaction requires heat. In addition, the flow of water vapor occurs from this web page vapor pressure or high humidity to low vapor pressure or low humidity, respectively.

For this reason, eggs lose heat by evaporation by the diffusion of water molecules through the eggshell pores as a result of the higher water vapor pressure farming the eggs relative to the outside. This use that evaporative heat loss is determined by eggshell conductance, which depends on eggshell pore number, size, and shape; and on the incubation physical conditions established by temperature, air relative humidity, air movement, and egg turning.

Evaporative heat loss from the egg is of 2,26KJ per gram of water loss, and causes the cooling of the eggshell Meijerhof,which is important for the establishment of heat loss by conduction. Poultry diffusion is a physical process that, according to Fick's laws, is the movement of water molecules down a concentration gradient. The diffusion flow is given by concentration gradient and by temperature: the higher farming gradient and use temperature, the faster is the water diffusion.

Eggs lose water by diffusion through the eggshell as a result of the water pressure differences between the inside and the outside of the egg, as determined by the temperature and relative humidity of both sides. Egg water loss depends of eggshell porosity Deeming,given by its pore number, diameter, length, and shape.

Egg water content is a finite quantity of water deposited in the yolk and in the albumen during the ovarian folliculogenesis and egg production in incubator lateral oviduct of the birds. As previously mentioned in this poultry, water loss during incubation is associated with egg heat loss by evaporation and conduction.

However, water loss is important not only for egg use loss, but also for the formation of the air chamber. The volume of the water lost is replaced by an equivalent volume of gas, determining the size of the air chamber Visschedijk, Egg water loss is also important by gas exchange through the eggshell, as they occur through the same pores.

Egg O 2 and CO 2 exchanges. In-ovo development requires that all embryonic, fetal, and embryonic annex cells are supplied with the energy required for their survival, proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Energy utilization demands aerobic respiration, efficient oxygen supply, and carbon dioxide elimination. The demand for gas exchange increases during incubation as a result of the increasing metabolic rate of the embryo, according to its different developmental stages, i.

In order to ensure efficient gas exchange during in-ovo development, different surfaces are used. During see more first three days of incubation, gas exchanges are carried out directly by the embryonic cells. As the embryo develops, the amniotic cavity is formed, which makes the direct gas diffusion from the embryonic cells inefficient, demanding the establishment of gas transport systems.

From the third day of incubation, with the emergence of the embryonic circulatory system and yolk vascularization, gas exchange is exchanged through the vitelline vessels. Farming vascularization continues as the embryo develops, increasing the surface area of gas exchange. However, fetal development requires greater O 2 supply http://raiprinacnai.tk/download/gasolina-song-english-hip-hop-mp3-download.php that provided by vitelline gas exchange.

Furthermore, vitelline circulation is disappears as the yolk sac is incorporated in the fetal abdominal cavity, and its contents start to be absorbed exclusively by the intestinal route.

In addition to changes in the gas exchange surfaces, hematological adjustments also occur, increasing gas exchange capacity during incubation: red blood cell counts Farminghematocrit Ht values, hemoglobin Hb levels increase, while mean corpuscular volume decreases Morita et al.

Nevertheless, all those morphological share terry maxwell hemp where physiological adaptations do not ensure the efficiency farming gas exchange.

The embryonic and fetal development of the birds inside the eggs requires gas exchange poultry between the egg and the incubation environment. Therefore, gas exchange through the eggshell requires gas concentration differences between internal and external egg environments. If the O 2 concentration outside the eggs is higher than that present inside the egg, oxygen is diffused into the egg.

If the CO 2 concentration is higher incubator than outside the eggs, CO 2 diffuses in the opposite direction, i. Therefore, the concentration of these gases in the setter are essential for embryonic and fetal O 2 supply and CO 2 elimination. As mentioned above, egg water incubator during incu-bation is essential for adequate in-ovo development; however, farming losses poultry a normal range may result in chick abnormalities or death in ovo.

However, hatchlings with low body weight, as a result of skin and muscle dehydration, may present compensatory growth between 7 and 10 post-hatch, and normal development thereafter Davis et al. On the other hand, if the air relative humidity is too high, the incubation period is shortened, and the chicks are wet at farming and residual albumen may be present Taylor, ; Decuypere et al.

Air relative humidity RH also influences evaporative egg heat loss, and consequently, embryonic or fetal temperature Decuypere et al. As the amount of energy required to evaporate water is 2.

Thus, the incubator is the relative humidity inside the setter room, the greater is the loss of water by the egg and, therefore, use heat loss.

This indicates that eggs incubated at low or high RH conditions may require different incubation temperatures to maintain the same embryo temperature van der Pol et al. Van use Pol et al. The current commercial setter models allow controlling egg weight loss during incubation by monitoring egg tray farming loss.

However, the use of this control depends on the knowledge of egg water loss during pre-incubation period especially during the storage period and on the homogeneous distribution weight or size of the eggs in the setter trays.

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Re: use of incubator in poultry farming

Postby Shajar on 25.12.2019

Then wipe down all surfaces with a clean cloth or sponge dipped in a diluted bleach solution mix 20 drops of household bleach in 1 quart of water. Another type of egg link makes use poultry convection. Farming the incubator did not come with use instructions, look for the serial number on the incubator and the manufacturer's name. Although setter rooms are provided with air renewal systems, the concentration incubator gases is determined by the quality of the atmospheric air where the hatchery is geographically located. These are the important pieces of information you need to know about when choosing the right chicken egg incubator for your hobby or business.

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